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Breaking Barriers

7 Key Obstacles Faced by Self-Represented Litigants

By Jeni Quillen, Product Manager, Catalis Courts & Land Records

Self-represented litigants (SRLs) play a significant role in the legal system. In fact, nearly 80% of participants are self-represented in some case types (National Center for State Courts). However, they often encounter a multitude of challenges that can impede their access to justice. In this blog post, we will explore seven common obstacles faced by SRLs, shedding light on the importance of addressing these hurdles and providing support to empower them in their legal journey.

Legal Complexity and Procedures

Navigating the intricate legal landscape is a daunting task for SRLs. The complexity of laws, court rules, and procedures can overwhelm individuals without legal expertise or knowledge. Understanding the requirements for filing documents, meeting deadlines, and adhering to court protocols and procedures is often a significant obstacle, potentially leading to errors, delays, or missed opportunities.

Limited Legal Knowledge and Resources

SRLs often lack access to comprehensive legal knowledge and resources. Legalese, precedents, and ever-changing statutes are unfamiliar territory for them. Limited access to legal libraries, research databases, and professional guidance can hinder their ability to understand relevant laws, conduct thorough research, and build strong legal arguments. This barrier can impact the quality of their case presentation and overall outcomes.

Unequal Representation

SRLs often find themselves at a disadvantage when facing opposing parties with legal representation. The expertise, experience, and negotiation skills of opposing lawyers can create an imbalance in courtroom dynamics. SRLs may struggle to effectively advocate for themselves, negotiate settlements, or present their case with the same level of legal aptitude. The asymmetry in resources and legal knowledge poses significant challenges for SRLs.

Emotional and Psychological Burdens

Engaging in legal disputes is often emotionally and psychologically draining for SRLs. The stress, anxiety, and pressure associated with self-representation, paired with the logistical barriers that many SRLs face can affect their mental well-being. Dealing with legal complexities, uncertainties, and high-stakes situations can amplify emotional strain. Managing emotions, maintaining composure, and effectively articulating arguments amidst this emotional burden can be challenging.

Limited Financial Resources

Financial constraints can significantly impact SRLs’ ability to access justice. Legal representation can be costly, making it unaffordable for many individuals. SRLs may lack the funds to hire lawyers, obtain expert advice, or cover litigation expenses. This financial hurdle can limit their options, affect the quality of their case preparation, and potentially result in unequal outcomes compared to parties with greater financial resources.

Lack of Procedural Guidance

SRLs often face a lack of guidance in understanding and navigating court procedures. The absence of clear instructions, readily available assistance, or self-help resources can leave them feeling lost and confused. SRLs may struggle to identify the necessary forms, understand documentation requirements, or properly prepare for court hearings. The absence of accessible procedural guidance can hinder their ability to present their case effectively.

Time Constraints and Workload

Self-representation requires a significant investment of time and effort. SRLs often juggle legal matters alongside their personal and professional responsibilities. The time-consuming nature of legal research, document preparation, court appearances, and correspondence can strain their ability to balance competing commitments. This obstacle can lead to stress, fatigue, and potential compromises in case preparation.


The challenges faced by self-represented litigants are multifaceted and require attention to ensure equitable access to justice. By recognizing and addressing these obstacles, legal professionals, policymakers, and organizations can work together to create a more inclusive legal system. Providing accessible legal resources, procedural guidance, support networks, and affordable options can empower SRLs to overcome these hurdles.

Catalis is dedicated to putting our customers at the center to provide a roster of virtual court solutions that are instrumental in increasing access to justice and removing obstacles for self-represented litigants.

Visit for a comprehensive list of our government/public sector solutions.

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